Philosophy: University of Wales, Cardiff 1996
This thesis is mainly interested in the relationship between the instruments
of value and methods to promote them envisaged in liberal freedom and green
moral and political theories.
Liberalism is explored. Neither neutrality, nor individualism, nor privacy can fully account for liberalism. Freedom is of much more importance to liberalism.
Social freedom is analysed. MacCallum's triadic formulation is refined, adding the factor of a description of the constrainer. This 'tetradic' formulation aids distinguishing impossibilities from unfreedoms.
Quantification of freedom is explored. Act-type approaches are shown to be unhelpful, and freedom not to be a zero-sum game. For freedom quantity and value are closely bound, with value largely determined by the value of the aim. The natures of more radical 'Green' moral and political theories are explored. The exclusion of animals from the moral sphere is seen to be unsustainable. The meaning and moral value of nature, species, ecosystems, and plants are clarified. Leopold's 'land ethic' is criticised.
Non-violence is shown to be integral to any real comprehensive and truly 'Green' radical theory.
The nature of environmental direct action, as practised by groups like Earth First!, is explored. Relevant sections of the Criminal Justice and Public Order Act 1994 are clarified. Traditional 'political obligation' theories justifying civil disobedience are found to be unhelpful in environmental cases. Seven criteria for identifying disobedience that should be tolerated are advocated, and applied to Islamic 'fundamentalist' disobedience, 'Outing' of homosexuals, and disability protests.
Freedom of the sorts enabled by private transport is shown to be achievable by other means more compatible with greenness.
The morality of markets and businesses is explored. There could be great scope for regulation, which could promote greenness, without restricting freedom.
This thesis suggests there is probably not a necessary conflict between liberal freedom and plausible green moral and political theories.
For further information, mail me at firstname.lastname@example.org.
Web Pages maintained by Laonie Butler
Last Update Mon Sep 28 1998